ARLA/CLUSTER: Como evitar erros com os códigos CTCSS.

João Costa > CT1FBF ct1fbf
Quarta-Feira, 21 de Dezembro de 2016 - 13:23:14 WET

Ham Radio - Avoid These Mistakes

I have compiled a list of mistakes that most new radio hams make when
they launch themselves into our fascinating hobby, but don't worry too
much we all make mistakes.

New transceivers are packed full with many features and benefits, some
benefit certain area's and others just make life more complex, the
majority of new hams buy a two metre transceiver either a mobile or
handheld to get onto the local repeater, your problems start when you
try to upload too many frequencies onto your handheld, after all there
are usually just a couple of VHF repeaters in your vicinity and a
number on UHF, trying to load up the transceiver with hundreds is a
big mistake and will lead to confusion and sadly disappointment, but
do not let these teething problems deter you from learning.

Access tones are often problematic to the new radio Ham, C.T.C.S.S.
tones were introduced a number of years ago to prevent operators
accessing repeaters in other parts of the country during good lift
conditions. Take your time and find out what your local repeater tone
is. C.T.C.S.S. adds and sub audible tone to your transmission to open
the repeater and some need it on receive. C.T.C.S.S. stands for
Constant Tone Coded Squelch System.

Older repeaters also use a 1750-HZ tone bursts to access the repeater,
check through your hand-held manual and research your local repeater
to see which C.T.C.S.S. tone you need and find out if 1750Hz is
required, these simple instructions will allow you to quickly access
your local network and allow you to engage in your first contacts.
Repeaters use two frequencies an input and output, make sure to learn
what the shift is, on two metres its -600KHZ below the output and UHF
is often 1.6 Megahertz higher than the output frequency.

Find out where the microphone is in your handheld transceiver,
speaking too loud or not loud enough distorts your signal, don't worry
though just ask a fellow radio ham what your audio sounds like and
adjust settings accordingly, speak a couple of inches away from the
microphone if using a mobile rig or mobile transceiver. I find that a
separate speaker microphone which simply plugs into the handheld is a
great asset to your operating, the audio quality on receive and
transmit is often much better.

Don't expect too much from your handheld transceiver, they are
designed as a pocket set and often arrive with a rubber duck aerial or
helically would stub, checking these over the years on sophisticated
sweep generators I have found many to be less than ideal on two
metres, due to the extra length required, UHF or seventy centimetres
seem to be where most rubber duck aerials are optimised, however
better hand-held aerials are available to solve this problem.

I came into the hobby after many years spent as a short wave listener
and constructor. Listening is a great benefit to the new radio Ham,
you find a lot by listening. Find out who the best operators in your
area are, take particular attention of how they conduct themselves.
Listening for local nets which tend to operate on specific days at
precise times will also help your understanding, join in and make new
friends and above all ask questions, in my early days I never got into
a situation where I struggled for an answer to a radio problem, get
onto the air it will help your confidence.

Scanning the repeaters in your area will indicate when activity peaks,
don't just sit and listen all the time put a call out on the local
repeater ask for a signal report or audio report and do the same if
you hear people calling, go back to them and before long you will be
making regular contacts and gaining confidence.

John Allsopp G4YDM

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